Poultry farming in Nigeria is considered as one of the most profitable investments the common Nigerian can start and make guaranteed huge amounts of returns. This farming system is of a flexible nature that is, you can go into it on a large scale or small scale and make money, the various breeds can help you achieve your goal after you have chosen your specific goals and objectives for the business
This article is compiled by a team of seasoned poultry farming experts, who know the rudiments of poultry farming in Nigeria. If you are a beginner, this article is going to give you a head start and please note that poultry is a general term used for domestic birds are turkey, duck, goose, quails, chicken etc. However, for clarification, this article dwells majorly on the chicken poultry birds because they are common and mostly reared in Nigeria. Read our e-book
Having made clarifications let’s look at reasons why poultry farming in Nigeria is profitable and lucrative.
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Eggs are high in Demand
Layers normally lay an egg 26 to 28 hours and once in full production, they can lay eggs for up to 56 weeks. The eggs can be supplied to the ever demanding market in Nigeria. The major reason why this product is high in demand is that it is one of the cheapest sources of protein available to the average Nigerian.
Chicken reproduce and grow fast
A good layer produces over 326 eggs a year, these eggs take only 21 days to hatch and they take 18 to 22 weeks on average to be matured.
The price is attractive
An average broiler can be raised for 6 to 8 weeks depending on the market taste, some consumers may want their birds to be raised for 10 weeks so that they can weigh 2kg to 3kg.
The bird gives their full market potential at 6 to 8 weeks, the price of broiler can be sold for N2000 to N2500.
Food: Food is among the basic needs of man. Regardless of the economic situation, people must eat and since domestic birds are consumable, this makes poultry farming very feasible.
Health: Again with the increased awareness on the health implications of red meat, there is an increased demand for chicken meat.
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Factors to consider before venturing into poultry farming in Nigeria
Although poultry farming is recommended any day anytime there are some factors aspiring poultry farmers in Nigeria should consider before venturing into poultry farming. They include;
Desired Niche: Before venturing into poultry farming business, you have to decide the breeds, you what to farm. This is very important, you can’t just collect birds randomly and starting farming without know the breed. In poultry farming, they are various breeds of fowl, the primitive one is called Gallus. Others include;
- Egg producers (Layers); This breeds are majorly for laying eggs, they of lightweight compared to the meat producers (Broilers).
- Meat producers (Broilers); they are of heavyweight compared to the egg layers. They are reared mainly for meat.
- The dual purpose ones (They are both layers and Broilers); they are reared for both meat and egg production. This kind of breeds is desired for farmers who want to produce eggs and meat on a small scale or for home consumption.
- Chicken Breeding (Hatchery)
- Poultry feed formulation
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The system of poultry management; It is important for aspiring poultry farmers to decide on which poultry management best suits them. They are majorly three systems of poultry management, they include;
- Extensive system: This system allows the birds to roam around in search of food and water.
- Semi-intensive system: With this system, the birds are housed in a fixed building but are allowed to move about within a fenced area during the day.
- Intensive System: Under this system, the birds are confined within the building and not allowed to move out. Under the Intensive system, they are two types.
Deep Litter system; here the birds are housed in a place specially made for them, there is good ventilation, all poultry sets such as feeding and drinking trough are placed in convenient places inside the pen.
Battery cage system; under this system, the birds are housed in individual cages, each accommodating a limited number of birds. It is constructed to permit ventilation from all sides.
Incubation; This factor is necessary for farmers who want to rear layers for egg production. Incubation is the process of providing eggs with optimum conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation necessary for the development of chicks and their successful hatching.
Incubation is of two types
- Natural incubation: This is done by the hen itself. After a having about 15 eggs, it stops laying in order to incubate the eggs already laid. It sits on the eggs and provides all the conditions for the eggs to hatch (temperature, relative humidity, and Ventilation).
- Artificial Incubation: It is designed to provide ideal conditions naturally provided by the hen. It is a man-made tool used to provide optimum conditions necessary for the development of the embryo into a chick.
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Poultry Farming in Nigeria Collection, feeding and storage of Eggs
Hatching eggs are to be collected at least 3-4 times a day.
Feeding management; Quality feed helps the birds to grow well and meet it intended. If broilers look good and heavy, they will hard to resist by your customers even if you increase the price to N3,000. Feeds constitute the major of the cost in poultry farming.
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Eggs should be stored at a temperature of about 18 degrees Celsius and a relative humidity of 75-80 percent. The eggs should be stored with the large end facing upwards, turning the eggs may not be necessary within the first two weeks but after two weeks, it is advisable to turn to prevent contact of the embryos with shell membrane, which may cause dehydration or physical damage.
Poultry farming in Nigeria
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